Manganese Precursor Selection and the Thermal Atomic Layer Deposition of Copper/Manganese Alloy Films

Tuesday, 7 October 2014: 15:40
Expo Center, 1st Floor, Universal 16 (Moon Palace Resort)
L. C. Kalutarage (Wayne State University), S. B. Clendenning (Intel Corporation), and C. H. Winter (Wayne State University)
Our laboratory seeks to develop the growth of metallic first row transition metal thin films using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The microelectronics industry is calling for the growth of metallic first row transition metal films by the ALD method for a variety of applications, including copper metallization, seed layers for copper metallization, copper/manganese alloys for self-forming copper diffusion barriers, and magnetic alloys. The ALD growth of noble metal thin films has been explored extensively in the past ten years, due to the positive electrochemical potentials of these metal ions and relative ease of reduction to the metallic state. The low temperature ALD of high purity, low resistivity Cu films has been described, but ALD routes to the other metallic first row transition metal films remain poorly developed, largely because of the negative electrochemical potentials of most of the ions and a corresponding lack of powerful reducing co-reagents that can convert precursors in positive oxidation states to the metals. We will describe the synthesis, structure, and properties of a large series of new first row transition metal ALD precursors that combine high volatilities, high thermal stabilities, and high reactivities toward reducing agents. We will also report borane and other reducing agents that can react with the metal precursors to afford metallic films. Additionally, we will overview the thermal growth of metallic copper, nickel, cobalt, iron, manganese, and chromium thin films from these new precursors. Key advances include development of optimized ALD precursors with very similar ligands and chemistry, and identification of new reducing co-reagents that can rapidly reduce the positive oxidation state precursors to the metals.