(Invited) Development of Periodically Oriented Gallium Nitride for Frequency Conversion

Monday, 29 May 2017: 10:30
Cambridge (Hilton New Orleans Riverside)
J. K. Hite, J. A. Freitas Jr., M. A. Mastro (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory), C. G. Brown (University Research Foundation), J. Leach, K. Udwary (Kyma Technologies, Inc), F. J. Kub (Naval Research Laboratory), S. R. Bowman, and C. R. Eddy Jr. (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory)
Gallium nitride is a semiconductor widely used in both optical and electronic devices. The polarity of GaN (+/- c-direction) influences many properties of the resultant material, including chemical reactivity and electric field in these ‘spontaneously polarized’ materials. By engineering inversion layers, we have demonstrated control of GaN polarity on both polar faces of GaN. By employing a selective growth method to deposit the IL, the lateral polarity of the GaN can be alternated, thus enabling structures referred to as periodically oriented (PO) GaN. We have shown such structures on both N-polar and Ga-polar native substrates by changing the IL material.

On N-polar substrates, we demonstrated that optimization of the MOCVD growth rates resulted in sharp, vertical interfaces and smooth surfaces. This work has moved the technology substantially closer to practical non-linear optic emitters by using HVPE to extend the PO GaN templates on N-polar substrates to total thicknesses of up to 500 μm, while faithfully maintaining the pattern of alternating polarity. Additionally, cross-sectional cathode-luminescence (CL) imaging of such an extension shows that the large initial dislocation densities occurring in the original inversion layers greatly decreased after about 25 μm of regrowth. The results of phase matching experiments with these structures will be presented, with discussion on fabrication issues.

These methods of GaN polarity inversion offer the promise of engineered materials with custom lateral and vertical polarity variations for applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices, a subset of which are expected to be suitable for non-linear optics.