Here we present how to improve both electronic and ionic transport in Li-ion battery electrodes using conjugated polymers. The approach includes poly[3-(potassium-4-butanoate)thiophene] (PPBT) — a water-soluble, carboxylate substituted polythiophene — as a binder component, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a surface coating on active material, namely, Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Additionally, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered for use as the conducting networks to facilitate design of a light-weight, flexible web electrode. To enhance the electronic conduction in the electrodes, connection between active materials (PEG- Fe3O4) and conducting agents (or CNTs) through binding components is of importance. PEG coating and carboxylated polythiophenes play an important role in dispersing the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and conducting agents (or CNTs), respectively, in a water medium, which allow for well-developed and interconnected electrode structures. Furthermore, carboxylated polythiophenes (e.g. PPBT) can boost electronic conduction, based on their high conducting properties and through electrochemical doping during electrochemical testing. The presence of carboxylic moieties on the side chain of polythiophenes such as PPBT could facilitate the formation of stable electrodes via chemical interactions between PPBT moieties (COO-) and the Fe3O4 surface (–OH). The results will show that this methodical consideration of both ion and electron transport through introduction of a carboxylated PPBT component, can remarkably enhance the performance of Fe3O4 based high-capacity anodes.