Surface-Modified Li4Ti5O12 for High Stability and Rate Performance Anode Materials

Wednesday, 4 October 2017
Prince George's Exhibit Hall D/E (Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center)


Lithium titanium oxides have attracted great attention worldwide for use in long-life applications such as electric vehicles and energy storage systems. Because Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) operates at a higher voltage range (~1.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and experiences little volume change, excellent structural stability and safety are ensured during cycling without the formation of Li dendrites. However, it is well known that LTO materials have a drawback in rate property due to their poor electric conductivity, which has limited their practical applications to long-life lithium batteries until now [1].

So far, various approaches have been presented to overcome this issue, including different metal ion doping [2], surface treatment with conductive materials [3], synthesis of nanomaterials [4], and partial reduction of surface Ti4+ to Ti3+ by hydrogen [5]. However, most of methods are considered complicated and expensive processes in the aspect of a large scale production.

In this work, we fabricate various Li4Ti5O12 materials with different Ti3+ content through a carbothermal reduction process and intensively investigate the effect of Ti3+ on their electrochemical performances. In addition, we suggest an optimal surface composition of Li4Ti5O12 materials enabling high current operation as well as high capacity.


1. T. Ohzuku, A. Ueda, N. Yamamoto, J. Electrochem. Soc., 142, 1431 (1995).

2. D. Dambournet, I. Belharouak, J.W. Ma, K. Aminev, J. Power sources, 196, 2871 (2011).

3. G.N. Zhu, H.J. Liu, J.H. Zhuang, C.X. Wang, Y.G. Wang, Y.Y. Xia, Energ environ sci., 4, 4016 (2011).

4. Y.G. Wang, H.Q. Li, P. He, E. Hosono, H.S. Zhou, Nanoscale, 2, 1294 (2010).

5. J.X. Qiu, C. Lai, E. Gray, S. Li, S.Y. Qiu, E. Strounina, C.H. Sun, H.J. Zhao, A.Q. Zhang, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 6353 (2014).