Surface Sensitivity of Fluoroethylene Carbonate Breakdown on Lithium Silicide Surfaces

Thursday, 5 October 2017: 09:20
National Harbor 8 (Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center)
L. H. Sprowl (Argonne National Laboratory, Oregon State University), L. Árnadóttir (Oregon State University), and M. K. Y. Chan (Argonne National Laboratory)
Silicon anodes are a promising material for lithium ion batteries due to their large theoretical capacity for storing lithium. When the battery is charging, the anode works by alloying lithium ions with the silicon anode where the lithium ions are reduced. In addition to the lithium ions being reduced, unwanted side reduction reactions of the electrolyte also occur. When the electrolyte reductively decomposes at the anode surface, a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is formed. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) is added to the electrolyte to make a more robust SEI which prevents further electrolyte decomposition. From FEC reductive decomposition, the primary reduction products are CO2, CH2CHO, and F-. While the decomposition products have been discovered, the lowest energy surface facet which promotes the breakdown of FEC into those products is still unknown.

Here FEC and its reduction products are being studied on different lithium silicide surfaces using density functional theory. The lithium silicide phases under consideration are the crystalline LiSi phase with a low lithium concentration and the crystalline Li15Si4 phase with a higher lithium concentration. All unique low index surface facets are considered for each lithium silicide phase. The interactions of FEC and its dissociation products are analyzed on the different anode surface facets to determine the surface sensitivity of FEC breakdown. From the binding energies of the FEC reactant and the CO2, CH2CHO, and F- products on the lithium silicide surface facets, FEC dissociation reaction energies are calculated. The facet on which SEI formation begins to form is determined from the reaction energies for both the low and high concentration lithium silicide anodes.

This material is based upon work supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program. The SCGSR program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) for the DOE. ORISE is managed by ORAU under contract number DE-SC0014664. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials, an Office of Science user facility, is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under contract number DE-AC02-06CH11357.