Inspired by the efficiency of the brain, CMOS-based neural architectures and memristors are being developed for pattern recognition and machine learning. However, the volatility, design complexity and high supply voltages for CMOS architectures, and the stochastic and energy-costly switching of memristors complicate the path to achieve the interconnectivity, information density, and energy efficiency of the brain using either approach. In my talk I will describe a non-volatile redox transistor (NVRT): a device with a resistance switching mechanism fundamentally different from existing memristors, based on the concept of reversible, electrochemical reduction/oxidation of a material to tune its electronic conductivity. The first type of NVRT that I will describe is based upon the intercalation of Li-ion dopants into a channel of Li1−x
. This Li-ion synaptic transistor for analog computing (LISTA) switches at low voltage (mVs) and energy, displays hundreds of distinct, non-volatile conductance states within a 1V range, and achieves high classification accuracy when implemented in neural network simulations1
. The second type of NVRT I will describe operates on a similar principle but is based on the polymer system PEDOT:PSS, and which we call the electrochemical neuromorphic organic device (ENODe)2
. Plastic ENODes are fabricated on flexible substrates enabling the integration of neuromorphic functionality in stretchable electronic systems. Mechanical flexibility makes ENODes compatible with three-dimensional architectures, opening a path towards extreme interconnectivity comparable to the human brain.
(1) Fuller, E. J.; El Gabaly, F.; Leonard, F.; Agarwal, S.; Plimpton, S. J.; Jacobs-Gedrim, R. B.; James, C. D.; Marinella, M. J.; Talin, A. A. Li-Ion Synaptic Transistor for Low Power Analog Computing. Advanced Materials 2017, 29, 1604310.
(2) van de Burgt, Y.; Lubberman, E.; Fuller, E. J.; Keene, S. T.; Faria, G. C.; Agarwal, S.; Marinella, M. J.; Talin, A. A.; Salleo, A. A non-volatile organic electrochemical device as a low-voltage artificial synapse for neuromorphic computing. Nature Materials 2017, 16, 414.
This work was supported by the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.