In contrast, electrochemical hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis (ECH) facilitates the conversion of FF at ambient conditions with no H2 gas. ECH of FF can use atomic hydrogen, supplied from the aqueous electrolyte. These advantages led to emerging studies for ECH of biomass, but it has not been broadly studied . The relationships between electrochemical reaction conditions and results will greatly contribute to broadening the ECH of FF.
In our previous study, FA and MF yield increased as a current density increased when the equivalent amount of charge was applied to the reaction in acidic solutions . Also, we found that furanic compounds participate in homogeneous side reactions in pH ≤ 1 solution that can decrease mole balance and products yield as reaction time increase . Another concurrent side reaction that undesirably consumes electrons is the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Here, we focus on the effects of applied potentials and Cu electrocatalysts, combined with rapid evaporation of MF, produced from ECH of FF. This is to investigate the product yield and electrochemical efficiency for products as well as side reactions at multiple applied potentials in 0.5 M sulfuric acid (pH 0). Also, rapid evaporation of MF with N2 gas flowing is used for avoiding its homogeneous side reactions at pH 0 . Bare Cu foil and micro-sized Cu supported on Cu have been used as electrocatalysts.
Rapid N2 gas flowing enhanced the mole balance and MF yield. FF conversion and MF yield increased when applied potential increased, but electrochemical efficiency for FA and MF production increased as applied potential decreased. Micro-sized Cu electrocatalysts had higher conversion of FF and yield of MF than bare Cu foil.
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