In this presentation, we report the effect of zincate ions on the Cu-intercalated Bi-birnessite cathodes beyond 100 cycles (6). The Cu-intercalated Bi-birnessite cathodes when paired with Zn anodes are shown to deliver 160Wh/L and cycle reversibly for over 100 cycles. The Cu ions play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effect of zincate ions in the 100 cycles; however, the zincate ions eventually poison the cathode to form ZnMn2O4. The mechanism through which ZnMn2O4 is formed is presented in detail with the aid of electroanalytical and spectroscopic methods. A solution of trapping the zincate ions is also presented, where the membrane that is used successfully traps the zincate ions from interacting with the cathode and thus, extend cycle life to over 900 cycles as shown in Figure 1. This is the best reported cycle life data with a manganese dioxide cathode accessing the near 2nd electron capacity paired with Zn anodes.
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