(Invited) Wafer-Bonding for MEMS – Status and Trends
The basic features that wafer bonding technologies for MEMS must fulfil for a successful wafer-level packaging process are hermeticity, high bond strength and high temperature stability. Glass-frit and anodic bonding are well and long-term established standard technologies used for hermetic packaging of MEMS on wafer-level. But both technologies require comparatively large chip sizes that are not compatible with the requirements for miniaturization and cost reduction of new consumer sensors. Therefore metallic bonding processes like eutectic bonding with aluminium-germanium were used for new consumer sensors. Typically, the bond frame size with the eutectic bond can be reduced by a factor of 2 in combination with a frame that stops the liquid eutectic material in lateral extent. With eutectic bonding very small chip sizes are possible resulting in shrinking the size of Bosch accelerometers as shown in figure 2. One step further is the realization of hermetic encapsulation and electrical interconnection, if an ASIC wafer serves as a functionalized cap. Cu-Cu thermo-compression and Cu / Sn SLID bonding are promising techniques that are of high interest for MEMS products of the future.
The wafer bonding processes used and under development at Bosch, examples, advantages, disadvantages and challenges will be described.
Figure 1: Overview of waferbonding technologies.