Microvia Filling in an Acidic Copper Planting Bath with Insoluble Anodes
It was confirmed that soluble anodes (i.e., P-doped Cu anode) have disadvantage when they were used in the acidic copper plating bath. For instance, the shape of the soluble anodes are changeable with operating time, which may causes non-uniform current distribution to form unequal copper thickness on substrate. Therefore, a special functional insoluble anode was used to replace the soluble anode and conventional dimensionally stable anode (DSA) to maintain better bath stability. The disadvantage of soluble anode can be improved by using the novel DSA.
In this work, a planting formula which was composed of chloride ions, suppressor (polyethylene glycol), leveler (quaternary ammonium species) and a novel accelerator instead of bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS). SPS is not appropriate for DSA system because of easy breakdown; therefore, we develop a novel accelerator, ACC, which has a longer lifetime and better performance for acceleration on copper deposition than SPS. Using DSA instead of P-doped Cu anode has another important contribution, that is, SPS reacts with the copper anode to produce Cu(I)-thiolate. The Cu(I)-thiolate is a strong accelerator in the presence of chloride ion. Cu(I)-thiolate will be accumulated in the copper plating bath to destroy the synergy between the suppressor and accelerator. DSA has no this issue because DSA has no copper. Herein, we will show that ACC combining with DSA can perform excellent copper fill in microvia.