Lithium Molybdenum Oxyfluorides As High-Capacity Positive Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

Wednesday, 4 October 2017
Prince George's Exhibit Hall D/E (Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center)
N. Takeda, S. Hoshino (Tokyo Denki University), I. Ikeuchi, R. Natsui, K. Nakura (Panasonic Corporation), and N. Yabuuchi (Tokyo Denki University)
The demand for the increase in energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries are still growing. Recently, the use of two-electron redox of vanadium ions coupled with a high electronegativity anion in the crystal lattice is proposed as an effective strategy to enhance the energy density of positive electrode materials.[1] Theoretical capacities of lithium insertion materials depend on both total extractable lithium ions and electron numbers in the structure of positive electrodes. Therefore, in addition to the lithium-enrichment in the structure, the use of multi-electron redox processes for transition metals is expected to be an important strategy to further increase energy density of positive electrode materials. We have recently proposed a new lithium-excess oxide, Li9/7Nb2/7Mo3/7O2, which delivers a large reversible capacity of ca. 290 mAh g-1 based on highly reversible three-electron redox of Mo3+/Mo6+.[2] Three-electron redox of molybdenum ions is expected to be a promising system to further increase energy density of positive electrode materials with less transition metal ions. Nevertheless, redox potential of Mo3+/Mo6+in the oxide framework structure is relatively low for positive electrodes.

In this study, to increase in the redox potential of three-electron redox reaction of Mo3+/Mo6+, a mixed anion system, oxyfluorides, is targeted. Crystal structures and electrode performance of a new series of xLiF–LiMoO2 binary system, Li1+xMoO2Fx, as oxyfluoride positive electrodes are systematically examined. The highest theoretical capacity based on Mo3+/Mo6+ is expected for x = 2 (Li3MoO2F2) in this binary system. Li3MoO2F2 was prepared by mechanical milling from LiMoO2 and LiF. A mixture of LiMoO2 and LiF was mechanically milled with a ZrO2 container and balls. Li3MoO2F2 is found to crystallize into an anion-/cation-disordered rocksalt structure with low crystallinity. Electrochemical properties of Li3MoO2F2 before and after mechanical milling are compared in Figure 1. The sample after mechanical milling delivers a large reversible capacity of ca. 280 mAh g-1, which nearly corresponds to that of theoretical capacity based on the two-electron redox reaction of Mo3+/Mo5+. However, higher average voltage for the molybdenum oxyfluoride is evidenced compared with those of oxides.[2]

From these results together with structural and electrochemical data of Li1+xMoO2Fx (x= 0.5, 1, and 1.5), we will discuss the feasibility of molybdenum oxyfluoride materials with multi-electron redox reactions as positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.


[1] R. Chen et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 5, 1401814 (2015).

[2] S. Hoshino, et al., and N. Yabuuchi, ACS Energy Letters, 2, 733 (2017).