As a first example, the impact of the W plug processing on the LF noise for planar pMOSFETs is shown in Fig. 1. The current noise PSD (SI) in linear operation (VDS=-0.05 V) at a frequency f=10 Hz is shown to become higher for the B2H6 precursor case, compared with the W deposition with SiH4 precursor. The higher noise is interpreted in terms of a higher oxide trap density, which is evidenced by the hump at about 100 mA drain current (ID), which is thought associated with a gate oxide trap, causing a Random Telegraph Signal (RTS).
The impact on the gate stack quality (noise) of high-k Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) and bulk FinFETs is shown in Figs 2  and 3,4 , respectively. In the first case, the effective oxide trap density, derived from the input-referred voltage noise PSD increases with the TiN thickness, which also results in a degradation of the static characteristics, i.e., the low-field electron mobility . Even for input-output (IO) devices with a rather thick thermal oxide, the gate material can play a strong role in the noise: comparing Figs 3 and 4, it is clear that both the magnitude and the slope (frequency index) of the spectra are different for a pFinFET with a standard TiN gate versus a TaN one. It will be shown that the latter devices may yield a better gate stack quality (a lower trap density) which becomes similar to that of a SiO2/polysilicon reference.
Ultimately, the NW architecture will take over at the end of the Roadmap due to superior gate control of the short-channel effects. Again, it has been shown that for NWFETs the gate metal may have a strong effect on the oxide trap density, as derived from 1/f noise [7,8]. An example is given in Fig. 5, showing a clear correlation between the DC parameters (low-field mobility) and the oxide trap density (Not) derived from the 1/f noise PSD. A more detailed study of the trap density profile in Fig. 6 reveals an increase of Not towards the metal gate for the TiN device, which is absent for the TiAl case. This suggests a possible oxygen scavenging effect of Ti on the gate stack , creating an excess of “noisy” oxygen vacancy centers in the high-k layer.
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