Electrochemical experiments of nickel deposition were carried out on titanium substrates using cyclic voltammetry and potential step, and examined with SEM imaging. The measurements were performed at different deposition potentials and times to get an overall picture of the nucleation and growth of nickel on titanium substrates. Further deposition studies have been performed using in situ AFM to study the whole process from single nickel nuclei to a cohesive layer, and determine the nucleation mode and characteristics. The effects of electrolyte composition and pH will be presented.
The pre-treatment of the substrate is important for the nucleation and properties of the nickel deposit. The figure illustrates the different nucleation overpotential for a smoothand rough titanium substrate.