Localized p-doping is a keystone in the development of many GaN based devices that need selectively doped pocket area such as MOSFETs or PIN diodes. Electrical activation of implanted Mg has been obtained lately with GaN grown on sapphire substrate using an AlN based protective layer combined with multi cycle of rapid thermal annealing at very high temperature (>1300 °C) proving the feasibility and interest of the method [1
]. The use of Si (111) substrate allows a better integration of the process on microelectronic production line. However the growth of GaN on Si (111) is less mature and necessitates a buffer usually composed of a complex staking based on AlN intermediate layers [2
]. The difference in lattice parameters and thermal extension coefficient in the stacking may make the samples more unstable during the high thermal budget required for doping activation. In the last few years, several groups focused their research on the prevention of GaN surface degradation at high temperature [3
] and we have shown that a combination of in situ epi deposited AlN and SiN thin layers is very efficient to avoid this phenomena [4
]. Here, we propose to study the impact of high thermal annealing on the evolution of the damage in Mg-implanted GaN (on Si). Indeed, comprehensive studies of the GaN healing mechanism in this kind of structures are not yet reported. We use samples of GaN layer grown by MOCVD on Si (111) using an AlN based buffer layer and protected by an AlN/SiNx
cap layer. These samples are implanted with Mg fluences ranging from 1013
at/cm² corresponding to maximum effective concentration between 5.1017
in the implanted layer. 400 °C -1100 °C anneals are proceeded in controlled N2
atmosphere. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements point out that ion implantation induced damage are healed thanks to different mechanisms: both lattice strain relaxation and point defect annihilation can occur during annealing with different kinetics. Indeed as we can see on Fig.1a, on samples implanted with low to medium fluence (up to 1014
at/cm²), relatively low temperature anneals (< 450 °C) are enough to obtain a near complete correction of the lattice deformation. However, surprisingly, the PL spectra of 400 °C annealed samples shown on Fig1.b indicates that a lot of non-radiative defects are still present and shutting down the PL intensity. The spectra of the sample annealed at 1100°C exhibits bands characteristic of Mg in Ga site (Mg(Ga)) which proves the necessity of a higher thermal treatment to reduce non radiative defects concentration and promote Mg incorporation in the GaN lattice. As shown on Fig 2.a, an increase of the fluence (1015
at/cm²) leads to an increase of the induced strain but also of the temperature necessary to fully relax it (1100°C). However, the PL spectra (Fig 2.b) indicates that even after such a high thermal treatment, the PL intensity of the bands associated with Mg(Ga) is weaker than for medium fluence despite the higher Mg concentration in the matrix [4
]. We assume that this behavior may be due to residual damage. This is supported by Transmission Electron Microscopy images of the layer (not shown here) that evidence remaining defective pockets after a 1 h 1100 °C in N2
annealing. These results give insight on the healing mechanism occurring during the activation anneal of Mg implanted in GaN. They also highlight that damage management is a critical parameter for GaN (on Si) p-doping via Mg implantation. To reach this objective, we will show that it is necessary to implement further specific processes to limit the implantation induced damage and to improve the damage recovery efficiency.
1. Tadjer, M.J., et al., Selective p-type Doping of GaN:Si by Mg Ion Implantation and Multicycle Rapid Thermal Annealing. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2015. 5(2): p. P124-P127.
2. Charles, M., et al., The effect of AlN nucleation temperature on inverted pyramid defects in GaN layers grown on 200 mm silicon wafers. Journal of Crystal Growth, 2017. 464: p. 164-167.
3. El-Zammar, G., et al., Surface state of GaN after rapid-thermal-annealing using AlN cap-layer. Applied Surface Science, 2015. 355: p. 1044-1050.
4. Lardeau-Falcy, A., et al., Capping stability of Mg-implanted GaN layers grown on silicon. physica status solidi (a), 2016.